Elucidating the genetic code
There is now strong evidence that DNA rather than protein carries primary genetic information.
Later, Watson and Crick (1953a, b) regarded the precise sequence of the bases as the code which carried the genetical information.
After the structure of DNA was deciphered by James Watson, Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin, serious efforts to understand the nature of the encoding of proteins began.
George Gamov postulated that a three-letter code must be employed to encode the 20 different amino acids used by living cells to encode proteins.
This review places in contemporary context the new information on gene structure such as the role of DNA in information storage, coding of genetic information, flow of information from DNA to protein, the satellite DNAs, information from RNA.
Gene function is critically traced through the flow of information from DNA to RNA; the expression of functional products in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, new proteomic approaches to /function, genetrap database, feed forward loop (FFL) system, extensive information through c DNA libraries.
The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA codon table).
Crucial to bioinformatic analysis are computer algorithms that can compare newly isolated genes with databases containing genetic sequence of known function.
A gene product is the key to the understanding of the intricate biological phenomenon from simple unicellular organisms to the incredibly complex multicellular organisms.
Using different copolymers most of the remaining codons were then determined.
Extending this work, Nirenberg and Philip Leder revealed the triplet nature of the genetic code and allowed the codons of the standard genetic code to be deciphered.
Search for elucidating the genetic code:
That scheme is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though variant codes (such as in human mitochondria) exist.